Epidemic cholera in Latin America, 1991-1993: implications of case definitions used for public health surveillance
MetadataShow full item record
This report presents the various cholera case definitions used by the affected countries of Latin America, shows the numbers of cholera cases and deaths attributable to cholera (as reported by Latin American countries to PAHO through 1993), describes some regional trends in cholera incidence. The information about how cholera cases were defined was obtained from an Octuber 1993 PAHO questionnarie. In all, 948 429 cholera cases were reported to PAHO by affected Latin America countries from January 1991 through December 1993, the highest annual incidences being registered in Peru (1991 and 1992) and Guatemala (1993). The case-fatality rate over the three-year period, and also in 1993, was 0.8 per cent. A general downward trend in the incidence of cholera was observed in most South American countries, while the incidence increased in most Central American countries. A good deal of variation was noted in the definitions used for reporting cholera cases, hospitalized cholera cases, and cholera-attributable deaths. Because of these variations broad intercountry comparisons (including disease burden calculations and care quality assessments base on case-fatality rates) are difficult to make, and even reported trends within a single country need to be evaluated with care. The situation is likely to be complicated in the future by the arrival of V. cholerae O139 in Latin America, creating a need to distinguish between it and the prevailing O1 strain. For purposes of simplicity, wide acceptance, and broad dissemination of case data, the following definitions are recommended: Confirmed case of O1 cholera: laboratory-confirmed infection with toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in any person who has diarrhea. Confirmed case of O139 cholera: laboratory-confirmed infection with toxigenic V. cholerae 0139 in any person who has diarrhea. Clinical case of cholera: acute watery diarrhea in a person over 5 years old who is seeking treatment. Death attributable to cholera: death within one week of the onset of diarrhea in a person with confirmed or clinically defined cholera. Hospitalized patient with colera: a person who has confirmed or clinically defined cholera and who remains at last 12 hours in a health care facility for treatment of the diseaseThis report will also be published in Spanish in the Bol. Oficina Sanit. Panam. Vol. 121, 1996
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
The epidemiology of renal replacement therapy in two different parts of the world: the Latin American Dialysis and Transplant Registry versus the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry Luxardo, Rosario; Kramer, Anneke; González-Bedat, Maria Carlota; Massy, Ziad A.; Jager, Kitty J.; Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Noordzij, Marlies (2018-09)[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To compare the epidemiology of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Latin America and Europe, as well as to study differences in macroeconomic indicators, demographic ...
Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology in Central America: a provisional epidemiologic case definition for surveillance and epidemiologic studies Lozier, Matthew; Turcios-Ruiz, Reina Maria; Noonan, Gary; Ordunez, Pedro (2016-11)Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD) along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific ...
Munayco, César V.; Mújica, Oscar J.; León, Francisco X.; del Granado, Mirtha; Espinal, Marcos A. (2015-09)Objective. To identify key social determinants of tuberculosis (TB) incidence among countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), a geographic area regarded as one of the most socioeconomically unequal in the world. ...