A review of leishmaniasis in Ecuador
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This article briefly reviews current knowledge about leishmaniasis in Ecuador-proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present. Regarding basic conditions, it appears that 14 of Ecuador's 20 provinces have endemic leishmaniasis. Nationally, over 4,000 cases were registered in the 1983-1986 period. Of 260 cases cited in the literature from 1920 through 1987, 240 (92.3 percent) were said to involve cutaneous forms of the disease and 18 (6.9 percent) mucocutaneous ones. Only one case each of visceral and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis was reported in 1920-1987, and neither of these has been confirmed. Various leishmania strains isolated by the authors from wild animals and man are currently being studies. To date, tests employing isoenzyme electrophoresis and monoclonal antibodies have identified some of the isolated strains as L. amazonensis and L. panamensis. At present it seems evident a detailed study of leishmaniasis transmission in Ecuador is needed in order to developed a plan for future control of the disease. Survey work directed at identifying the particular Leishmania varieties prevalent in the country's different endemic areas is also needed, as is research on the sandfly vectors and animal reservoirs of the diseasePublished in Spanish in Bol. Oficina Sanit. Panam 108(4):296-307, 1990
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